Fibers cannot be used to make clothes in their raw form. For this purpose, they must be converted into yarns. The process used for yarn formation is spinning. Spinning by hand was a slow and laborious process.
Thus, many implements and methods were invented for making it faster and simple. Eventually, the techniques were refined and industrial spinning started manufacturing yarn in various ways. The methods selected depend upon the factors such as the manufacturer's preference of equipment, the economic implications, the fibers to be used and the desired properties of yarn to be produced. Ring method is the oldest and the most used technique. Open- end spinning is another important method. The basic manufacturing process of spinning includes carding, combing, drafting, twisting and winding. As the fibers pass through these processes, they are successively formed into lap, sliver, roving and finally yarn.
The fiber is converted into the yarn by the following steps in Yaldaye Kavir factories, one of the biggest and most modern spinning units in Iran. First, the dyed fibers are opened, uniformed and mixed in the willy. Then, the continuous fibers called Sliver are produced in Carding machine and get fined smoothly in the mixture of water and oil. They are continually thinned after three Passage stages and are changed into very thin fibers. Then, the fibers are put into a cylinder-shaped package by Finisher machine. It is transported to the Ring, afterwards. The final stretch with the twist is applied on the yarn so that the roving is changed into a very thin single-layer yarn which its thickness and uniformity is controlled in the autoconer. The single-layer yarn gets multi-layered in Layering machine. Finally, it is spun in the spinning machine.